1P78 Kashtan 2.8x Magnification

MMW named Vavilov, logo

1P78 is one of the newest optics to enter into service with the Russian armed forces. The design is similar in concept to the ACOG with a relatively low magnification and ability to point and shoot without having to adjust any controls.


FOV is really nice, very similar to the PO 3.5x21P and much better than 1P29 or the Zeiss 4x25 ZFK. At 2.8x it ends up being a really usable magnification that in some ways does seem more like a red dot than a magnified scope. Both eyes open shooting is possible but not quite as easy as PK-AS or Rakurz because of the eye cup, though with practice it works well. Like most Russian optics it does have eye relief but it's easily taken care of with the rubber eyepiece (a common feature on Soviet/Russian scopes and works as designed). The optic has an orange/yellow coating designed to reduce eye strain and enhance clarity

Weight is reasonable at 1.1lb, actually less than many side rail + optic combinations on the market.

2016 updated family photo: Top to bottom: Classic 1P78 side rail, ultra rare 1P78-1P Picatinny/Weaver and bottom: Kashtan P1 with a Picatinny rear biased mount
You can unscrew Kashtan from it's base as well as the NPZ factory side rail mount
1P78-1P has the Picatinny base molded into the body of the optic and cannot be removed

I have done a little bit of shuffling around to accommodate the TigIR thermal clip on, and this combination works really well

Shown here with Perst 3, Vox-S suppressor and Modlite flashlight, and a 25 round cut down RPK74M 45 round mag. I have also modified a couple of ModButton Lite Buttons to fit the Perst 3 connector and can use the laser or white light in a similar manner as an AR, which as you would expect is quite effective for shooting pigs with NODs
The stock is from an AK74M3 upgrade kit and so far I quite like it

Kashtan seems to have almost zero light transmission loss through Gen 3 Western night vision optics. The tritium is smooth and doesn't overpower the NV.
Interestingly enough Kashtan 1P is already at the right height for the Trijicon Skeet-IR clip on thermal using the Wilcox flip to side dovetail mount

With SOCOM 7.62 suppressor

Side view of the 1P78-1, the AK74M version most common in the USA


100m showing relative height to reticule

To be clear this optic was not mounted to a rifle for this photo.


The Kashtan is tritium illuminated meaning no batteries and no circuitry to break, it's always on and the operator has to do nothing to get the illumination to work. The reticule is black during the day but when light levels drop low enough you can immediately see the illumination. This is a feature I am really enjoying on modern Russian optics like Kashtan, 1P76 Rakurz and the 1P29/UPO-1, it's smart and very simple. No more complaints about battery life on combloc optics ;)


The optic is zeroed on the 400m concept, meaning that if you shoot from 100m your point of impact should be about 22-25cm higher than your point of aim. The large chevron is used from 0-400m (see the '4' on the right of the vertical hash marks). Difficult to see in the photo but there is a tiny dot almost part of the large chevron, which is used for 500m targets. The second and 3rd chevrons are used at 600m and 700m respectively.

While the Kashtan does not have a PSO style range finder it is entirely possible to use the width and height of the hash marks to estimate range.

theakforum.net member "fearrainsdown" has done the calculations:


1P78 is centered over the bore and has a good height, it's about the same as an ACOG over a flat top AR or pretty darn close. Speaking of the famous 'unusually high' height of Russian optics I really don't think they are universally designed to be so high, it's usually assumed they all are but some are and some aren't. In any case Kashtan is definitely one of the lower ones out there and is really comfortable. The 1P78 has an adjustable lense cap that rotates freely and has a spring loaded detent that keeps it from flopping around.

Adjusting the base for a tight fit is like any AK mount optic and takes just a minute to get right. It does block the irons when mounted but not a big deal if you have your tension set properly on the clamp because it's easy to unlock and remove in a hurry.


Update December 2016

I have recently acquired a new type of Kashtan called 1P78-1P which is a Weaver mount optic suitable for railed dustcovers or other other quality side mounts. This one has the military reticule with tritium illumination. Weight is 21 ounces without mount. Height over rail is 1.5 inches to center of ocular lens. Shown here on RS Regulate side rail

Shown here with AAC Mini 4, ZenitCo B10+B33 topcover, DBAL A3
24x1.5 adapter is Griffin Armament combined with AAC Brakeout 2 QD mount

Wolf Performance has a deal with NPZ to import optics. It is likely that Kashtan-2 is a slightly modified version of Kashtan 1P
Photo from Kalinka Optics. These seemed to be getting ready to hit the market in 2017-2018 but as of 2022 I still haven't seen them available, even on Ebay stores from Russian sellers

Kashtan P1 uses a one of a kind Weaver mount, is not illuminated and does not have a military reticule. It is still a very useful optic and is doing well mounted to the ZenitCo B33 topcover

This Kashtan could be unscrewed from them mount and if properly converted could be used on another mounting system. Weight is 24.9 oz with mount as shown and height over rail is 1.75 inches to center of ocular

Locking lever open

And closed. The mount is very secure and tension was correct out of the box

Mount Differences

Formerly this was thought to be the RPK74 version based on information listed on NPZ's own website, but after discussing the issue with Tantal it is clear that what we thought was the RPK version was actually the older, original side mount.

While otherwise appearing to be identical, the Kashtan on the right has the older side mount
as shown on NPZ's site above. This was thought to be the RPK version but is in fact the original mount style for all Kashtans, not specifically the RPK.

NPZ's website lead to the confusion regarding the supposed RPK version of the Kashtan

The new 1P78-1P reticule is marked AK74 / AN94

As of early 2012 a few 1P78's came into the USA that did not have the military reticule. These version appear to be designated Kashtan C-1 (S-1) but there are versions marked C-1 that have the military reticule. Function and performance will be the same other than there are no additional chevrons or range lines for longer distances.

S-1 with German Post Reticule (theakforum.net sargent_bilko)  The new Kashtan P1 also has this reticule, but not the -1P Weaver version (which has the military reticule)

S-1 version also but this one has the military reticule (Some have the military version and some do not)

Kashtan with Russian troops in the Ukraine, Feb-March 2014 conflict

Kashtan on AK103, VDV Russian Airborne

While no known 7.62 versions exist in the US the German Post version (or the 5.45 version for that matter) could easily be used on the AK103. If you used 7.62x39 battle sight settings it would have the same ease of use as the 400m AK74 zero

Kashtan on a vehicle mounted PKM

Russian training exercise

In conclusion I think the 1P78 is a rugged and simple optic. There is a lot of engineering in the design that has made it a pretty easy to use scope and it's naturally right at home on an SGL31 type rifle, but should work fine on any 16" barrel 5.45 rifle with a side rail. Should work on the AK105 style as well but you'll probably have to learn some hold over for the second and 3rd chevron. For me this is a must have optic

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